Journal of Software
1000-9825
2009
20
10
2729
2743
article
基于蚁群优化解决传感器网络中的能量洞问题
ACO-Based Algorithm for Solving Energy Hole Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks
基于多跳的无线传感器网络,越靠近sink的传感器节点因需要转发更多的数据,其能量消耗就越快,从而在sink周围形成了一种称为“能量洞”的现象.“能量洞”问题会导致整个网络由于内部节点能量过早耗尽而结束寿命,同时,网络中离sink较远的节点仍有大量能量剩余.研究“能量洞”现象,基于改进的分级环模型,总结出调节各环内节点的数据传输距离是实现网络节能的有效方法.证明搜索各区域最优的传输距离是一个多目标优化问题,即是NP难问题.从而提出一种基于蚁群优化的分布式算法,各区域根据其节点分布情况自适应地探索近似最优的传输距离,延长网络寿命.模拟实验结果表明,该算法在较短的时间内能够收敛到合理的解,并且得到的网络寿命接近于理想情况下的最优时间,与现有的类似算法相比,该算法提供了更长的网络寿命,并能适用于非均匀节点分布情况.
In a multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN), the sensors closest to the sink tend to deplete their energy faster than other sensors, which is known as an energy hole around the sink. No more data can be delivered to the sink after an energy hole appears, while a considerable amount of energy is wasted and the network lifetime ends prematurely. This paper investigates the energy hole problem, and based on the improved corona model with levels, it concludes that the assignment of transmission ranges of nodes in different coronas is an effective approach for achieving energy-efficient network. It proves that the optimal transmission ranges for all areas is a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP), which is NP hard. The paper proposes an ACO (ant colony optimization)-based distributed algorithm to prolong the network lifetime, which can help nodes in different areas to adaptively find approximate optimal transmission range based on the node distribution. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the network lifetime under this solution approximates to that using the optimal list. Compared with existing algorithms, this ACO-based algorithm can not only make the network lifetime be extended more than two times longer, but also have good performance in the non-uniform node distribution.
无线传感器网络;能量洞问题;网络寿命;多目标优化;NP难;蚁群优化
WSN (wireless sensor network); energy hole problem; network lifetime; MOP (multi-objective optimization problem); NP hard; ACO (ant colony optimization)
宋 超,刘 明,龚海刚,陈贵海,王晓敏
SONG Chao,LIU Ming,GONG Hai-Gang,CHEN Gui-Hai and WANG Xiao-Min
jos/article/abstract/3462