国家重点研发计划(2021YFB2700200); 中央高校基本科研业务费(2042022kf1195, 2042022kf0046); 国家自然科学基金(62076187, 62172303); 湖北省重点研发计划(2022BAA039); 山东省重点研发计划(2022CXPT055)
近年来, 区块链技术引起广泛关注, 其作为一种分布式账本技术, 由于具备开放性、透明性和不可篡改性, 已经被应用到诸多领域. 但随着用户数量和访问需求的大幅增加, 现有区块链体系结构可扩展性不足导致的性能瓶颈, 制约了区块链技术的应用和推广, 如何解决可扩展性问题已成为学术界和工业界关注的热点. 对已有的区块链扩展方案进行分析和总结. 首先, 介绍区块链基本概念和可扩展性问题的由来, 定义可扩展性问题并提出衡量可扩展性的指标. 其次, 给出分类框架, 将现有方案按网络扩展、链上扩展、链下扩展3大类进行介绍, 通过对不同的区块链可扩展性方案进行分析, 比较各自的技术特点并归纳优缺点. 最后, 对亟待解决的开放性问题进行讨论, 展望区块链技术未来趋势.
In recent years, blockchain technology has attracted a lot of attention. As a distributed ledger technology, it has been applied to many fields due to its openness, transparency, and non-tamperability. However, as the number of users and access requirements rise, the performance bottleneck induced by the poor scalability of the existing blockchain architectures has restricted the application and promotion of blockchain technology. How to solve the scalability problem has become a hotspot issue in academia and industry. This study analyzes and summarizes the currently available blockchain scaling solutions. For this purpose, the study outlines the basic concept of blockchain and the origin of the scalability problem, defines the scalability problem, and proposes the metrics for scalability. Then, it presents a classification framework and reports the existing solutions in the manner of categorizing them into three classes: network scaling, on-chain scaling, and off-chain scaling. Different blockchain scalability solutions are analyzed for a comparison of their respective technical characteristics and a summary of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, this study discusses the open issues that need to be addressed promptly and explores the future trends of blockchain technology.