国家重点研发计划(2021YFB2700404); 国家自然科学基金(U22B2032, 61972382); 内蒙古自然科学基金(2020MS06017); 河北省重点研发计划(20310105D); 未来区块链与隐私计算高精尖创新中心项目(GJJ-22-025)
区块链技术被认为是构建价值互联网的基石, 然而彼此独立的区块链系统形成了数据、价值孤岛. 区块链互操作(也被称为跨链操作)是打破链间壁垒、构建区块链网络的关键技术. 在区分狭义与广义区块链互操作的基础上, 重新定义狭义区块链互操作, 并抽象出跨链读与跨链写两类基本操作; 分析总结实现狭义区块链互操作需要解决的3个关键技术问题: 跨链信息传输、跨链信任传递、跨链操作原子性保障; 系统梳理这3个问题的研究现状, 并分别从多角度进行比较; 在此基础上, 从关键技术问题的角度分析具有代表性的整体解决方案; 最后指出几个值得进一步探索的研究方向.
Blockchain is the basis of the Internet of value. However, data and value silos arise from independent blockchain systems. Blockchain interoperability (also known as cross-chain operability) is essential for breaking inter-chain barriers and building a blockchain network. After differentiating between the blockchain interoperability in the narrow sense and that in the broad sense, this study redefines the former concept and abstracts out two primary operations: cross-chain reading and cross-chain writing. Subsequently, it summarizes three key technical problems that need to be resolved for achieving the blockchain interoperability in the narrow sense: cross-chain information transmission, cross-chain trust transfer, and cross-chain operation atomicity guarantee. Then, the study reviews the current research status of the three problems systematically and makes comparisons from multiple perspectives. Furthermore, it analyzes some representative holistic solutions from the perspective of the key technical problems. Finally, several research directions deserving of further exploration are also presented.