谢晴晴(1990－), 女，博士，讲师, CCF专业会员, 主要研究领域为应用密码学, 区块链技术;董凡(1995－), 男, 硕士生, 主要研究领域为轻量级区块链技术
国家自然科学基金青年基金(62002139, 61902157); 江苏省自然科学基金(BK20200886); 中国博士后科学基金(2019M651738, 2019M661753)
传统的区块链技术为了保证交易账本的全网共识和不可篡改性, 要求矿工节点具有强大的计算能力和足够的存储空间, 这就限制了资源受限的设备加入区块链. 近几年, 区块链技术已经拓展到金融经济、医疗健康、物联网、供应链等多个领域, 但是这些应用场景存在大量算力弱、存储容量低的设备, 这给区块链的应用带来了巨大挑战. 为此轻量级的区块链技术应运而生. 从轻量级计算和轻量级存储两方面出发, 总结当前轻量级区块链的研究现状, 对比分析各个方案的优缺点. 最后展望未来轻量级区块链的发展.
In order to ensure the network-wide consensus and tamper proof of the transaction ledger, the miner nodes are required to possess strong computing and storage resource in the traditional blockchain technology. It greatly limits the resource-constrained devices to join in the blockchain systems. In recent years, blockchain technology has been expanded in many fields, such as financial economy, health care, Internet of Things, supply chain, etc. However, there is a large number of devices with weak computing power and low storage capacity in these application scenarios, which brings great challenges to the application of blockchain. Therefore, lightweight blockchain technology is emerging. This study summarizes some related works of lightweight blockchain from the two aspects of lightweight computing and storage. Their advantages and disadvantages are compared and analyzed. Finally, the future development of the lightweight blockchain systems is prospected.