刘博涵(1991-),男,湖北武汉人,博士生, CCF学生会员,主要研究领域为软件过程挖掘,软件过程度量;董黎明(1994-),女,博士生,主要研究领域为软件过程挖掘;张贺(1971-),男,博士,教授,博士生导师, CCF专业会员,主要研究领域为软件过程,软件体系结构,服务计算,经验软件工程领域的科研和实践.
National Natural Science Foundation of China (61572251); State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology (Nanjing University) (KFKT2017A13)
DevOps已提出近十年，其作为敏捷方法在完整的软件生命周期上的延伸，旨在从文化、自动化、标准化、架构以及工具支持等方面，打破开发与运维之间的壁垒，重塑软件过程，以实现在保证高质量的前提下，缩短从代码提交到产品上线之间的周期.在竞争日益激烈的市场环境下，用户对于产品服务的稳定性以及更新频率和效率的要求不断提高，DevOps在学术界和工业界的关注程度因此也不断提高.Puppet Labs在2013年开始了全球DevOps现状的问卷调查，迄今已发布了5份报告.国内DevOps的发展相对滞后，对于国内DevOps现状的研究在工业界和学术界均处于空白.2016年和2018年分别进行了两次关于DevOps国内现状的问卷调查以填补这一空白，两次调查的受访人数分别为74和66人.基于两次调查结果，从DevOps涵盖的IT性能表现、组织文化及相关实践、开发与运维实践、工具支持、领导力、工作比例、员工敬业度及满意度这8个方面，综合分析了DevOps在国内的发展现状与趋势，并与Puppet Labs报告的全球现状进行了对比.总体而言，国内DevOps虽呈现了稳步发展的态势，但与国际水平相比尚存在明显差距，目前能达到国际高水平IT性能的受访团队仅6%.通过对比，总结了17条发现，经过综合分析，获得了3个主要结论：（1）员工素质和人才紧缺是国内DevOps滞后、过程成熟度不高的症结；（2）DevOps化越成熟，员工敬业度和满意度越高；（3）Scrum敏捷开发和基于主干开发是最普遍采纳的实践.基于分析结果，在未来实践与研究上给出了多项建议.
DevOps has been proposed for nearly a decade. As an extension of the agile approach from development to the entire software lifecycle, DevOps aims to break the barrier between development and operation and reshape the software process from the aspects of culture, automation, standardization, architecture, tool support, etc. The process is to achieve the shortest possible cycle from code submission to product release, while guaranteeing high quality. In an increasingly competitive market environment, users are increasingly demanding the stability of product services and the frequency and efficiency of updates. Therefore, DevOps has attracted a large number of researchers and practitioners. Puppet Labs began a global survey of the state of DevOps in 2013 and has published five reports so far. The development of DevOps in China is relatively lagging behind. The research on the state of DevOps in China is in a blank in both industry and academia. Two questionnaire surveys are conducted on the state of DevOps in China in 2016 and 2018 to fill this gap. The numbers of responses received in the two surveys were 74 and 66 respectively. Based on the results of the two surveys, this study performed a comprehensively analysis from eight aspects, including IT performance, organizational culture and related practices, development and operation and maintenance practices, tool support, leadership, work ratio, employee engagement, and satisfaction. The development status and trends of DevOps in China with the global status reported by Puppet Labs are compared. Overall, DevOps has shown a steady development trend in China, but there is still a significant gap compared with the international level. At present, only 6% of the respondents could achieve the international high-level IT performance. 17 findings from the comparison are summarized. Then, three main conclusions are obtained through the synthesis of these findings:(1) The quality of employees and the shortage of talents are the crux of lagging behind and the process maturities of most of organizations are not high; (2) The more mature DevOps leads to the higher degree of the dedication and satisfaction of employees; (3) Scrum agile development and trunk-based development are the most commonly applied practices. Based on the analysis results, several recommendations are provided for practice and research.