国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0407901); 江苏省自然科学基金(BK20191297); 中央高校基本科研业务费(B210202075)
随着神经网络等技术的快速发展, 人工智能被越来越多地应用到安全关键或任务关键系统中, 例如汽车自动驾驶系统、疾病诊断系统和恶意软件检测系统等. 由于缺乏对人工智能软件系统全面和深入的了解, 导致系统时常发生严重错误. 人工智能软件系统的功能属性和非功能属性被提出以加强对人工智能软件系统的充分认识和质量保障. 经调研, 有大量研究者致力于功能属性的研究, 但人们越来越关注于人工智能软件系统的非功能属性. 为此, 专注于人工智能软件系统的非功能属性, 调研了138篇相关领域的论文, 从属性定义、属性必要性、属性示例和常见质量保障方法几个方面对目前已有的研究工作进行系统的梳理和详细的总结, 同时重新定义和分析了非功能属性之间的关系并介绍了人工智能软件系统研究中可以用到的开源工具. 最后, 展望了人工智能软件系统非功能属性的未来研究方向和挑战, 以期为该领域的研究人员提供参考.
With the rapid development of neural network and other technologies, artificial intelligence has been widely applied in safety-critical or mission-critical systems, such as autopilot systems, disease diagnosis systems, and malware detection systems. Due to the lack of a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of artificial intelligence software systems, some errors with serious consequences occur frequently. The functional attributes and non-functional attributes of artificial intelligence software systems are proposed to enhance the adequate understanding and quality assurance of artificial intelligence software systems. After investigation, a large number of researchers are devoted to the study of functional attributes, but people are paying more and more attention to the non-functional attributes of artificial intelligence software systems. This paper investigates 138 papers in related fields, systematically combs the existing research results from the aspects of attribute necessity, attribute definition, attribute examples, and common quality assurance methods, and summarizes the research work on non-functional attributes of artificial intelligence software systems. At the same time, a summary and relationship analysis are presented on the non-functional attributes of artificial intelligence software systems. The open source tools that can be used in the research of artificial intelligence software system are surveyed. Finally, the thoughts on potential future research directions and challenges are summarized on non-functional attributes of artificial intelligence software systems, which, hopefully, will provide references for researchers interested in the related directions.